Instructions for Authors

ALTEX is devoted to open access publication of research on the development and promotion of alternatives to animal experiments according to the 3R concept of Russell and Burch: Replace, Reduce, and Refine.
Animal experiments are defined as all experimental procedures involving the use of animals in testing, research, and education or to obtain tissues, organs, and other animal-derived products which may cause pain or distress to animals. ALTEX further publishes manuscripts on the bioethics of the complex relationship between humans and animals. Articles published in ALTEX must express a basic concern for the dignity of living creatures and the recognition of animals as our partners. ALTEX is committed to ensure that all research it publishes gives full consideration to animal welfare and ethical issues.
         Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is appropriately cited (CC-BY). Copyright on any article in ALTEX is retained by the author(s).

Evaluation procedure         
ALTEX publishes original articles, short communications, reviews, as well as news and comments, meeting reports, and book reviews. Articles having no 3R relevance are rejected before entering the evaluation procedure. Two experts’ reviews are obtained for full articles and short communications with 3R relevance. In case of disagreement, a third review is commissioned. The final decision rests with the editor in chief. The content of the reviews is sent to the authors independent of whether the manuscript is accepted for publication. The current rate of acceptance of manuscripts is stated on the ALTEX homepage.

Submission of manuscripts
Send manuscripts via e-mail to as one full pdf file with page and line numbers for review plus separate .doc or .docx text file and separate figure files (see below).
Include a cover letter confirming that all authors concur with the submission and that the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere. State whether there are any copyright issues on the paper or parts of it and include relevant copyright transferals where applicable. You may include suggestions of up to five potential expert reviewers who are not former coauthors. Include full name, affiliation, and e-mail for each potential reviewer.
         ALTEX will bill authors € 2,000 per full manuscript and € 1,000 per short communication if and when it is accepted for publication. These publication costs include the costs of publishing manuscripts as Epub ahead of print, of publishing the final manuscript in the journal and of printing figures in color where required. Include a billing address in the cover letter. Note that ALTEX is an open access journal listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals. Numerous funding institutions, university libraries and scientific institutes support open access publication by contributing to the publication fees. If your organization has no means to cover the publication costs, please state this in the cover letter and ALTEX may choose to waive these.

Structure of full articles 
  • Article type: Research Article, Review Article, Concept Article or Opinion Article
  • Title: 12 words maximum
  • Authors: with full first names
  • Affiliations: of all authors
  • Summary: 250 words maximum
  • Keywords: 3-5 words
  • Disclaimer: if applicable
  • Introduction: Include a specific statement concerning the 3R relevance of the article
  • Research Articles will then continue with the sections: (Animals), materials and methods, Results and Discussion; Review, Concept and Opinion Articles are structured logically into sections and subsections by the authors and return to the standard structure with References etc. 
  • Materials and methods:
    When reporting experiments on animals:
    do not list animals as materials;
    indicate which institutional and national guides for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed;

    - describe animal experiments in detail according to the ARRIVE guidelines: and/or the Gold Standard Publication Checklist:; indicate species and, where appropriate, strain of the animal; total number of animals used throughout the study; experimental design including statistical design and analysis; other pertinent details relating to the lifetime experience of the animals, including housing and care; refinements of experimental procedures to reduce suffering; pain management; humane end points; and euthanasia methods.
    - confirm that the study went through a process of ethical review prior to the study commencing; this should include a weighing of the likely adverse effects on the animals against the benefits likely to result from the work;
    - confirm that the potential for application of the 3Rs was rigorously researched prior to starting, and every opportunity was taken during the course of the study to implement each of them;
    - confirm that animal husbandry and care was in accordance with contemporary best practice and all individuals involved with the care and use of animals were trained and skilled to an acceptable level of competency, with euthanasia carried out according to contemporary best practice, and that
    - appropriate anesthesia and analgesia were used to minimize pain and distress, and humane endpoints were defined and implemented where appropriate.
    When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, explain the rationale for the approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. 

  • Results

  • Discussion
  • References: format according to examples below
  • Acknowledgements: to sources of funding and to contributing persons
  • Conflict of interest statement: Declare whether or not any author has potential conflicts of interest.
  • Correspondence address: full address of corresponding author including phone number and e-mail
  • Table legends and figure captions
  • Tables and figures: numbered in the order of appearance in the text.
  • Supplementary files: if any

A short communication has no more than 4 printed pages of text (single spaced, 9 pt) and 1 page of figures or tables. Results and discussion may be combined. In addition, a supplementary file describing materials and methods in more detail may be posted online.

For other formats, such as workshop reports, corners, news, letters, please contact the editorial office to discuss the appropriate length and layout.

Articles must be written in English. Language should be based on the Chicago Manual of Style (  Use the international standard measuring system (SI). Numbers should be written in the decimal system (e.g., 1,000.25). Use a separate line for equations. Indicate trademarks (™) and registered goods (®). Explain abbreviations when using them for the first time. If several abbreviations are used,  add an abbreviation index as a footnote to the Introduction. Technical terms should be explained for readers who are not experts in your particular field. Include page and line numbers.

Citations and references

Citations in the text should be marked with name/s of the author/s and the year of publication, e.g., (Harvey and Smith, 2008; Kimmel et al., 2010). In case of several publications by the same author/s within one year, please mark them with a, b, c, etc.
          Format the references at the end of the text according to the examples below. If you use Endnote, you may use the ALTEX5 style (download ALTEX style for Endnote (.ens file) - last update October 26, 2015). Include full DOIs or other full content links where applicable.

Journal articles
Four authors or fewer
Honegger, P., Lenoir, D. and Favrod, P. (1979). Growth and differentiation of aggregating fetal brain cells in a serum-free defined medium. Nature 282, 305-308.

More than four authors
Fan, C. Y., Cowden, J., Simmons, S. O. et al. (2010). Gene expression changes in developing zebrafish as potential markers for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening. Neurotoxicol Teratol 32, 91-98.

Book chapters
Honegger, P. and Schilter, B. (1992). Serum free aggregate cultures of foetal rat brain and liver cells: methodology and some practical applications in neurotoxicology. In G. Zbinden (ed.), The brain and bits and pieces: In vitro techniques in neurobiology, neuropharmacology and neurotoxicology (51-79). Zollikon, Switzerland: MTC Verlag.

Goldberg, A.M. (ed.) (1983). Alternative methods in toxicology, product safety evaluation. Vol. 1. New York: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

European Commission (2006). Regulation (EC) of No 1907/2006 of the European parliament and of the council 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC.

Tables and figures
Upon submitting the manuscript, you may include tables and figures at the end of the manuscript document on separate sheets marked with the figure or table number.
          Tables must be supplied with a title and figures with a caption (i.e., title and explanation). Tables and figures must be self-explanatory without further reference to the manuscript. Refer to all tables and figures within the manuscript, e.g. (Tab. 1) or (Fig. 1).
          Upon submission of the final, accepted version of the manuscript, figures must each be submitted as a separate labeled file. Provide all figures in high quality (300 dpi), each in a separate jpg, tif or ppt file (ppt only if the figure was drawn in Powerpoint). If the figure was created in a different program, use the export function. The size of the ALTEX type area is 27.2 x 17.4 cm. This represents the maximum size for a figure or table.
          If using another author’s illustration or table, enclose a copyright transfer from that author or the relevant copyright holder and reference the material accordingly.

Last update: October 12, 2016
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